Optica Publishing Group

Crystal structural effects on up/down-conversion luminescence properties of GdInO3:Tm,Yb perovskite phosphors for effective dual-mode anti-counterfeit applications

Version 2 2024-04-02, 19:14
Version 1 2024-04-02, 19:13
Posted on 2024-04-02 - 19:14
Developing advanced luminescent materials that are recognizable under specified conditions provides better opportunity for reliable optical anti-counterfeiting techniques. In this work, novel GdInO3:Tm,Yb perovskite phosphors with ultrafine sizes and near-sphere morphologies were successfully synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation route. Two-type perovskites with orthorhombic and hexagonal structures could be obtained by calcining the precursor at 850 and 1100 ºC, respectively. Under 980 nm excitation, the two phosphors exhibited cyan-bluish emission at ~460−565 nm, red emission at 645−680 nm, and near-infrared emission at 770−825 nm arising from 1G4+1D2→3H5,6, 3F2,3→3H6, and 3H4→3H6 transitions of Tm3+, respectively, where the hexagonal perovskite phosphor had relatively strong and sharp red emission as well as red-shifted cyan-bluish emission via successive cross relaxations. The Yb3+ sensitizer enhanced the upconversion luminescence via effective Yb3+→Tm3+ energy transfer and the optimal Yb3+ concentrations were 10 at.% for rhombic perovskite and 5 at.% for hexagonal one. The upconversion mechanism mainly ascribed to two-phonon processes while three-photon and even single-photon excitation was also involved. Upon excitation at 254 nm, their down-conversion spectra exhibited broad multibands in the wavelength range of 400−500 nm deriving from combined effects of the defect-induced emission of GdInO3 and the 1D2→3F4 + 4G4→3H6 emissions of Tm3+. The energy transfer from GdInO3 defect level to Tm3+ excitation state was observed for the first time. The unclonable security codes and logos prepared by screen printing from those dual-mode emitting perovskite phosphors were almost invisible under natural light, which had promising potential for anti-counterfeiting application.


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