Direct-focusing surface-emitting laser

Posted on 14.01.2022 - 15:20
Focusing is a fundamental optical technique that has been widely implemented via lenses. Here, we demonstrate direct focusing from a band-edge surface-emitting laser, whose emission area is 200 μm × 200 μm, without any lenses. To achieve this, a phase-modulating layer is incorporated into the laser cavity. This layer acts simultaneously as a lasing cavity similar to that of a photonic crystal laser and as a holographic spatial-phase modulator, which transforms the output beam into a focusing beam by slightly shifting the positions of holes from a periodic square lattice. Beam profiles along the surface normal clearly show that direct focusing occurs with a focal length and focal spot size of 310 μm and 6.1 m, respectively. The focal length agrees well with the theoretical value, and the focal spot size is 2.0 times the diffraction-limited size, which indicates that the higher transverse modes are sufficiently suppressed. In addition, the power density at the focus is 540 times higher than that at the near-field plane. Interestingly, a focus pattern is also observed in the opposite direction at the near-field plane, which indicates that a converging beam and a diverging beam are simultaneously emitted because of the nature of the in-plane band-edge laser. The conventional beam patterns of semiconductor laser cavities are limited to the regime of two-dimensional projection based on a Fourier hologram. In contrast, we demonstrate the simplest form of a three-dimensional point cloud based on a Fresnel hologram, which is quite useful for micro-sensing applications such as microfluidics, flow cytometry, blood sensors, and endoscopy.


Hirose, Kazuyoshi; Kamei, Hiroki; SUGIYAMA, TAKAHIRO (2022): Direct-focusing surface-emitting laser. Optica Publishing Group. Collection.
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Optics Express


Kazuyoshi Hirose
Hiroki Kamei


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