Kramers–Kronig relation in attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

Posted on 2023-01-24 - 17:36
Kramers-Kronig relation (KKR) has a wide range of applications in extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and X-ray spectroscopy. However, the validity of KKR for many of these applications has not been systematically studied, while it is known to require careful attention in nonlinear and pump-probe experiments in optical domain spectroscopy. Here, we study the validity of KKR in XUV attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS) pump-probe experiments both experimentally and theoretically using the argon Fano resonances as a case study. Experiments are enabled by a phase-resolved method dubbed Complex Attosecond Transient-absorption Spectroscopy (CATS). Although the estimations based on the rotating-wave approximation suggest that KKR violation could be expected in the studied case, our results validate KKR and provide a solid basis for its application in a broad range of attosecond spectroscopy experiments.


Leshchenko, Vyacheslav; Hageman, Stephen J.; Cariker, Coleman; Smith, Greg; Camper, Antoine; Talbert, Bradford Kent; et al. (2023): Kramers–Kronig relation in attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Optica Publishing Group. Collection.
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Vyacheslav Leshchenko
Stephen J. Hageman
Coleman Cariker
Greg Smith
Antoine Camper
Bradford Kent Talbert
Pierre Agostini
Luca Argenti
Louis DiMauro


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